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These tiny devices contain human cells in a 3-dimensional system that mimics human organs. The chips can be used instead of animals in in vitro disease research, drug testing, and toxicity testing. Another non-animal research method is in silico or computer simulation and mathematical modeling which seeks to investigate and ultimately predict toxicity and drug affects in humans without using animals. This is done by investigating test compounds on a molecular level using recent advances in technological capabilities with the ultimate goal of creating treatments unique to each patient.
Microdosing is another alternative to the use of animals in experimentation. Microdosing is a process whereby volunteers are administered a small dose of a test compound allowing researchers to investigate its pharmacological affects without harming the volunteers. Microdosing can replace the use of animals in pre-clinical drug screening and can reduce the number of animals used in safety and toxicity testing. Additional alternative methods include positron emission tomography PET , which allows scanning of the human brain in vivo ,  and comparative epidemiological studies of disease risk factors among human populations.
Simulators and computer programs have also replaced the use of animals in dissection , teaching and training exercises. These bodies are mainly driven by responding to regulatory requirements, such as supporting the cosmetics testing ban in the EU by validating alternative methods. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Animal studies disambiguation. For the journal, see Animal Research journal.
Section 2 : Transport
Main article: History of animal testing. Worldwide laws regarding testing cosmetics on animals. Worldwide laws regarding experimentation on non-human apes. Main article: Animal testing on invertebrates. See also: Pain in invertebrates. Further information: Animal testing on frogs , Animal testing on rabbits , Animal testing on rodents , Draize test , and Median lethal dose. See also: Laika and Soviet space dogs.
Main article: Animal testing on non-human primates. Main articles: Laboratory animal sources and International primate trade. Further information: Animal cognition , Pain in animals , Pain in fish , Pain in amphibians , Pain in invertebrates , and Pain in cephalopods. Worldwide laws regarding the formal recognition of nonhuman animal sentience and suffering. Further information: Euthanasia and Animal euthanasia. Main article: Xenotransplantation. Main article: Toxicology testing. Main article: Testing cosmetics on animals. Further information: Animal welfare , Animal rights , and History of animal testing.
Main article: Alternatives to animal testing.
Section 1 : Classification and adaptation
UK Parliament. Retrieved 13 July Speaking of Research. Retrieved 24 January Vivisection or Science? Retrieved 6 April Archived from the original PDF on 25 June British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection.