It is AD 43, and on the coast of Gaul, Aulus Plautius, a general in the Roman army, is preparing his men for the invasion of Britannia, nine decades after Julius Caesar departed those same shores, one look at the Celts having been enough to cause him to scarper. But Plautius David Morrissey, with a dead animal round his neck is determined.
Meanwhile, across the Channel, what do we find? The Druids, for instance, are straight out of Shameless. And the tribes are everywhere at war. Even at a nice, open-air, inter-tribal wedding, Antedia has only to see Pellenor to start shouting the odds from her chariot.
Reigns shoots straight on his relationship with Cena, their WWE No Mercy program
The fact that they aren't close behind the scenes, Reigns said, has prevented any hard feelings from surfacing while the two have continued to shatter the fourth wall. If you care for someone and they knife you, it's going to hurt. It will hurt your feelings and can depress you. But when you don't really care about somebody or their opinion, it doesn't affect you.
And that's how it is with me and John. The timing of such a star-studded feud, typically saved for WrestleMania, is curious for an in-between pay-per-view like No Mercy -- not that fans are complaining. Reigns admits he was excited when he heard a program with Cena was forthcoming, adding that the heavy spotlight that comes with working alongside "one of the greatest of all-time" is exactly what anyone in this business strives hopes to achieve. And that's what I feel is going on right now," he said. But that was a solo effort, and the best moments of this feud have come when the two have traded barbs in person, which has included pockets of improvisational gold.
The best example of which came on the Sept. As the time WWE champion was in the midst of tearing Reigns down on the microphone, Cena noticed that the zipper on Reigns' pants was down and called him out on it live. Do I have boogers in my nose? Any like weird hair conditioner on my ears? Is my zipper up? I kind of push and normally you'll check your zipper to make sure the teeth are right in place. I actually pushed right through it. It's not like I'm just wearing trunks or something. Itineraria told stories — stories of foreign lands, of far-away points of interest, of unknown roadways.
They tapped into the primeval nomadism that lies deep within us all. They lit the imaginations of those seeking an escape from the confines of home — and provided a key to the door. At their core, itineraria held the promise of a better future. Perhaps it is because of this evocative power that our world is so in love with itineraria today; that we have adopted their underlying mental model in fields outside of travel, including science, engineering, business, policy-making, and social and economic development.
- Banhos de Mar (Portuguese Edition).
- Navigation menu;
- Spanish Lesson 1: Numbers 1 to 20 (Easy-Peasy Spanish For Kids Series).
- Nanomagnetism and Spintronics;
- Guía del estado de cambios en el patrimonio neto (Spanish Edition)?
- Chuck Smith :: C2000 Series on Romans 9-10.
In these and other fields, we know itineraria under their modern name: roadmaps. Fast-forward many centuries and the world today is blanketed with roadmaps covering all conceivable territory. Except, we no longer use them to navigate geographies. The roadmaps we have fallen in love with are made up of strategies and plans, which — when stitched together — present a vision of the future and a set of recommendations on how to get there.
Think of them as a type of planning instrument, a development roadmap or a roadmap for change. Roadmaps like these exist for addressing the most pressing and tangible problems of our time: ending global hunger ; eradicating tuberculosis and cholera ; promoting the economic empowerment of women ; and transforming the global energy system , to name but a few. There are also roadmaps for more specific, bounded challenges, such as evidence-based clinical practice , income security , the digital transformation of organizations , antimicrobial resistance , fusion energy , impact investing , single-use plastics , and healthy ageing.
Soon, there will even be a roadmap for finding life on exoplanets. Several reasons explain the extraordinary popularity of roadmaps as a tool for inspiring and guiding change. They provide a compelling vision of a future state of the world; one that is desirable and noble and elicits our sense of adventure and courage. They break a long journey down into manageable milestones, providing changemakers with a framework for managing actions and tracking progress. They present evidence in the form of studies, charts, and tables to convey a level of scientific rigor, thereby allowing funders, policy-makers, and executives to use them as a decision-making tool and as a mechanism to defer accountability.
What all of these roadmaps have in common is a vision of a goal to be reached and a hypothesis of how to get there.
At their core, these roadmaps thus resemble itineraria. But there are some crucial differences. Whereas itineraria present real places in physical space, roadmaps for change lead to imagined destinations. Roadmaps for change are thus mere hypotheses, in both journey and destination. They represent the aspirations, desires, and hopes of their creators while putting forward a step-by-step action plan for how these objectives might be achieved.
Roadmaps so often fail because their inherent characteristics sit at odds with the properties of the systems they seek to change.
Most roadmaps suggest development pathways that are linear and sequential. The underlying logic is that outcomes serve as prerequisites for other outcomes, according to the logic: A leads to B, B leads to C. Further, most roadmaps are deterministic. They suggest that the cause-and-effect relationships within the system they address are either known or knowable. Deterministic approaches make assumptions about how individual elements influence, control, or trigger other elements in the same system.
Similarly, they pretend to understand how different actors in the system can be incentivized and motivated to behave in certain ways. So, if we provide business training and access to export markets, they will become successful entrepreneurs and lift themselves out of poverty. So, if we establish quotas, we can boost the share of senior female executives. Finally, roadmaps tend to assume that the context in which the problem plays out is static.
Reigns shoots straight on his relationship with Cena, their WWE No Mercy program - laukoslilooks.cf
Roadmaps thus do a lousy job of anticipating and accommodating non-linear, disruptive change. Nor do they have much capacity to respond to — let alone engage — randomness and serendipity. The reason why roadmaps fare so poorly in effecting change is that the problems they seek to address occur in a world of complex adaptive systems.
gajuqodaja.tk In these systems, nobody can be sure what the constituent elements of the system are and how they relate to and interact with each other. Such systems self-organize. They constantly change in response to internal pressures or external influences.
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Cause and effect can only be determined with hindsight. And dynamics of change are often characterized by unknown feedback loops. Complex adaptive systems never reach optimality. Indeed, they never reach any sort of steady state but instead continue to evolve and exhibit new forms of emergent behavior — often in a non-linear and discontinuous fashion. Economies, immune systems, brains, and natural ecosystems are all complex adaptive systems, as are social constructs such as nation-states, families, and companies.
Roadmaps assume that the world consists of complicated problems that we can deconstruct, study, and fix by decree. Yet if the world is a complex adaptive system and consists of complex adaptive sub-systems, is it surprising that linear, deterministic, and static tools so often fail?